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英語 から 日本語: Treatment efficiency with the use of skeletal anchorage and corticotomy
原書のテキスト - 英語 Skeletal anchorage was introduced into orthodontics
when the limits of conventional orthodontic
anchorage were encountered. These limits
were evident when the number of teeth available
was insufficient for the establishment of a
reactive unit that could serve as anchorage, or
when all teeth had to be displaced in the same
direction and no equilibrium could be obtained.
It is often when faced with a desperate situation
that humans becomes inventive. The first study
of the reaction to metal inserted into bone was
done by Humphry (1878), who inserted metal
ligatures in the mandibular ramus in order to
study the modeling of the growing mandible.
With the same purpose, metal indicators were
used by Bjork and Skieller (1972) to differentiate
between displacement and modeling of
the individual bones of the craniofacial skeleton. Already, Gainsforth and Higley (1945) had
showed an interest in the tissue reaction to loading
of metal inserted into bone. They applied
forces to vitallium screws immediately after
insertion into the mandible. The failure rate was
100%, and almost 25 years passed before Linkow
(1970) suggested using metal blade implants for
prosthodontics as anchorage. This approach
did, however, have a limited indication and did
not catch much attention. Sherman (1978)
caught up on these results and recommended
that a healing period would lead to higher stability.
The interest in tissue reaction around
loaded metal devices was most likely a spinoff
from the development of dental implants
(Albrektsson et al., 1986), and several researchers
(Steinberg, 1978; Roberts et al., 1984) performed
histological studies of the bone surrounding
implants inserted in femora of rabbits. The development of the dental implants had
a direct impact on orthodontics, and the first application of intraoral extra-dental anchorage
that allowed for an otherwise impossible treatment
was done by Roberts et al. (1989), who,
following loss of a first lower molar, inserted
a small dental implant in the retromolar region
and used it as anchorage for the mesial displacement
of the second and third molars
without adverse force systems to the anterior
teeth that were in a desirable position (Roberts
et al., 1990).
翻訳 - 日本語 従来の矯正治療の固定源に限界が生じると、矯正治療にスケルタルアンカレッジが導入された。固定源として働くリアクティブ・ユニットの確立（reactive unit）には、利用可能な歯数が十分でない場合や、すべての歯を同方向に転位させなければならず、平衡が得られていない場合には、こういった限界が明らかである。ヒトというものは、困難な状況に直面した時に、その創造性を発揮することがある。骨に埋め込む歯科金属材料への反応に関する最初の研究は、 Humphry （1878）が行ったが、同氏は、下顎骨の発育のモデリングを研究するため、下顎枝に金属線結紮線を挿入した。Bjork氏及びSkieller氏（1972）は、同じ目的で、頭蓋顎顔面骨格の個々の骨の変位とモデリングを識別するため、金属指示薬を用いた。Gainsforth氏とHigley氏（1945）は、すでに骨に埋め込まれる金属の負荷に対する組織反応に関心を示し
ていた。同氏らは、下顎骨にバイタリウム・スクリュー（vitallium screws）の挿入後すぐに、スクリューへの応力を適用した。失敗率は100%であり、それから、25年経とうとする頃、Linkow （1970）は、固定源として補綴用金属製ブレードインプラントの使用を提唱した。しかし、このアプローチは適応症に限りがあり、あまり注目されていなかった。Sherman氏（1978）は、今までのこの不足を取り戻し、治療期間がより高い安定性を引き出すことを提言している。負荷された金属装置周辺の組織反応への着目は、大抵が歯科インプラントの開発から派生したものであり（Albrektsson et al., 1986）、研究者の中には（Steinberg, 1978; Roberts et al.,1984）、ウサギ大腿骨に埋め込んだインプラント周辺の骨の組織学的研究を行った。歯科インプラントの開発は、歯科矯正学分野に直接的に影響を与え、Roberts氏ら（1989）は、歯科以外の口腔内固定の最初の適用を行い、ほかでは不可能だった治療を可能にした。 同氏らは、下顎第一大臼歯の喪失後、臼歯後部に小型歯科インプラントを埋め込み、それを固定源として用い、所望の位置にある前歯に対しての不利な力系の非存在下で、第二大臼歯、第三大臼歯の近心転位を行った（Roberts et al., 1990）。
原書のテキスト - 英語 The heart pumps blood to the body through a complex network of arteries. With exception of the coronary arteries, which nourish the heart itself, most arteries transport oxygen-rich blood away from the heart.
Circulating in the blood are red blood cells, white blood cells, nutrients and other life-sustaining substances. Cholesterol and other fatty substances also circulate in the blood. Over time, these substances can be deposited in the artery walls, a condition called atherosclerosis. The deposited cholesterol, or plaque, can build up over time, causing hardening and narrowing of the otherwise smooth artery walls. When the walls of the artery become narrowed and hardened, blood flow is restricted. As the plaque accumulates, the buildup can become unstable and may break off or “rupture.”
A condition called thrombosis, results when blood starts to coagulate, or clump together, at the site of the rupture, similar to the way blood clots to stop bleeding from a cut. The blockage, or thrombus, can grow larger, further restricting the flow of blood. The thrombus is also in danger of breaking from the site and traveling through the arteries.
The blockage caused by a thrombus can be life threatening. A blockage in the coronary arteries may cause a heart attack while blockage in a cerebral artery may cause a stroke. Blockage in one of the major arteries of the body can prevent blood flow to an extremity or organ, causing pain and tissue damage to the area.
英語 から 日本語: e-learning General field: 医療 Detailed field: 生物学(バイオテク、生化学、微生物学)
原書のテキスト - 英語 The kidneys are a pair of small, bean-shaped organs located towards the back of the torso, behind the lower ribs. Although people are born with a pair of kidneys, the body can still function efficiently with just one healthy kidney.
The functions of the kidneys include balancing the body's fluid content, regulating blood pressure and red blood cell production and filtering wastes from the body. Each kidney is composed of about one million filtering units called nephrons. Each nephron contains a twisted mass of small blood vessels called glomeruli. The semi-permeable glomeruli allow water and soluble wastes from the blood to pass through the membrane. The filtered wastes are then transported out of the body in the form of urine.
Diabetes is a disorder caused by an excessive amount of glucose, or blood sugar, in the bloodstream, which can damage the membrane and lead to high blood pressure. This increase in blood pressure causes the kidneys to filter too much blood, overworking and damaging the nephron. This condition is known as diabetic nephropathy. Because the nephron’s glomerular filters no longer work, waste begins building up in the body when it should be filtered out, and important blood proteins that should be retained are lost.
Symptoms of this disorder often do not appear until 80 percent of the kidneys have been damaged. When they do appear, symptoms often include swelling, fatigue, loss of appetite, high blood pressure, excessive urination and excessive thirst.
When 85 to 90 percent of kidney function is lost, the term "end stage kidney failure" is used, and kidney dialysis or transplant becomes necessary. About 10 to 20 percent of all diabetics will develop nephropathy, but a healthy lifestyle can delay or even prevent the condition. This includes carefully controlling glucose levels, staying active, keeping blood pressure in a healthy range and maintaining a healthy weight.
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